• Dry Eye Causes and Treatment Options from New York Ophthalmologist Dr. Mark Hornfeld

    You have three different layers of tears in your eyes—a bottom layer produced by thousands of individual cells, a watery middle layer, and an oily layer on the outside of the eye which keeps tears from evaporating.

    This video examines the causes of dry eyes syndrome. In most cases, dry eyes syndrome occurs when the cells that produce the bottom layer of tears begin to deteriorate and no longer replicate or reproduce. Other causes of this condition include the use of certain medications, evaporation during windy conditions, and blocked sebaceous glands. Watch this video for information about what you can do about dry eyes syndrome.

    Improve the health of your eyes by visiting your NYC ophthalmologist . Call Dr. Mark Hornfeld of Vista Laser Vision at (212) 580-8881 to make an appointment. You can also set up a consultation on our website.

  • Understanding Macular Degeneration and Treatment Options from Dr. Mark Hornfeld

    Macular degeneration is an eye disease characterized by deterioration of the macula, which is the part of the retina responsible for central vision. Next to glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness and affects millions of individuals in the United States. Continue reading to get the facts regarding this detrimental eye disease.

    Retina eye scan


    The two types of AMD are dry AMD and wet AMD . Dry AMD accounts for approximately 90 percent of all cases and occurs when tiny proteins and “drusen” fat deposits build up between the photoreceptors inside the retina. Wet AMD develops as a result of abnormal blood vessel growth beneath the macula which causes leakage of blood and fluid, ultimately causing damage to the retina’s photoreceptor cells.

    Risk Factors

    There are a number of factors that may increase your risk of developing macular degeneration. These include having a family history of the disease, being of Caucasian descent, and using tobacco products. Individuals with high blood pressure and high cholesterol may also be at an increased risk for macular degeneration.


    The symptoms of macular degeneration will increase in severity as the disease progresses. Common signs of AMD include blurred central vision, distortion of straight lines, blind spots, and headaches.

    Treatment Options

    The treatment options available for macular degeneration include anti-VEGF injections to control endothelial growth of abnormal blood vessels, photodynamic therapy, and laser surgery. Your ophthalmologist can help you determine which treatment method is right for you based on the type and severity of your macular degeneration and your overall health status.

    Find out if you are experiencing vision loss due to macular degeneration by contacting NYC ophthalmologist Dr. Mark Hornfeld of Vista Laser Vision at (212) 580-8881. With several years of experience, Dr. Hornfeld is your resource for macular degeneration, cataract, and glaucoma treatment in New York City.

  • What to Expect During Your LASIK Consultation with Dr. Mark Hornfeld

    LASIK surgery is an innovative vision correction procedure which uses laser energy to reshape the corneal lens and treat a number of refractive errors, including myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. A good way to determine if you can benefit from LASIK surgery is to consult with your New York City ophthalmologist. Continue reading to learn what you can expect from your initial LASIK consultation .


    Patient Medical History Questionnaire

    Your LASIK surgeon will have you complete a patient medical history questionnaire at the beginning of your appointment. This may include questions regarding your family history of disease, personal history of eye conditions, previous surgeries, current medications, and lifestyle factors.

    Physical Examination

    Once you have finished your questionnaire, you will meet with your ophthalmologist. After discussing the reasons for your visit and any symptoms you have, your eye doctor will perform a number of tests to assess the health of your eyes and determine your candidacy for surgery. During this exam, your eye doctor may evaluate the shape and thickness of your cornea , assess pupil size, determine the severity of refractive errors, and use a corneal topographer to measure the curvature of your cornea.

    Discussion of Procedural Options

    The last part of your LASIK consultation will usually include an in-depth discussion regarding the results of your eye exam and your potential treatment options. This is your time to ask questions, so be sure to talk to your doctor about the different types of LASIK available, how you should prepare for surgery, what you can expect during the procedure, and what changes you will need to make during the recovery period.

    Are you ready to improve your vision? Whether you are interested in LASIK surgery, multifocal lens implants, or glaucoma treatment, Dr. Mark Hornfeld of Vista Laser Vision can help. Give our New York City office a call at (212) 580-8881 to schedule an appointment.

  • Laser Vision Surgery and Eye Health Resources from Dr. Mark Hornfeld

    Eye test

    Are you struggling to see the writing on the screen or tired of putting on and taking off your reading glasses for every little thing? Visit some of the resources to learn more about eye health care, and call Dr. Mark Hornfeld of Vista Laser Vision in NYC at (212) 580-8881 for more information regarding our laser surgery and other ophthalmologic services.

    Broccoli is one of the best foods for your eyes. Browse through this link from FitDay.com for more information on the importance of broccoli for eye health .

    Which foods can help ward off macular degeneration and cataracts? Find out with this article from the American Academy of Ophthalmology .

    What exactly is macular degeneration ? Get the facts by visiting this link from eMedicineHealth.com.

    Approximately 10 million individuals in the United States have macular degeneration or are at risk for the disease. Check out this article from Blindness.org to learn all about age-related macular degeneration.

    Are you at risk for macular degeneration ? Learn how you can protect yourself by reading this article from the National Eye Institute.

  • Macular Degeneration, Explained

    Macular degeneration is one of the leading eye diseases among older individuals and results in significant loss of vision. This video from the National Eye Institute discusses the causes and symptoms of macular degeneration.

    The two types of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are wet AMD and dry AMD, both of which cause blurring and distortion of one’s central field of vision. Check out this video clip to learn how macular degeneration is treated.

    Don’t lose your sight to the aging process. Get the care you need for macular degeneration , cataracts, and glaucoma by contacting NYC ophthalmologist Dr. Mark Hornfeld at (212) 580-8881.

  • See More Clearly With Help From These Eye Health Resources

    Definition of resource

    Are you suffering from vision changes? Check out these links for more information about what to expect during your LASIK consultation, the anatomy and function of your eye, foods that promote eye health, and the signs and symptoms of macular degeneration. Call Dr. Mark Hornfeld of Vista Laser Vision in NYC at (212) 580-8881 for more information regarding our services.

    What can you expect before undergoing LASIK eye surgery? Explore this WebMD.com article for more information.

    Make sure you are prepared for your LASIK surgery consultation by reading through this article from the FDA.

    Your eyes are responsible for turning light reflections into images of the outside world. Learn how this is possible with this article from the Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology .

    Glaucoma interferes with the way your eyes translate light into electrical signals. Check out this link from the Glaucoma Research Foundation for more information about your eye anatomy and the effects that glaucoma has on your vision.

    Did you know that proper nutrition can reduce your chances of developing macular degeneration? Visit this link from MSNBC to learn which foods are great for your eyes .

  • A Brief Look at the Anatomy of the Eye

    Your eyes are your windows to the world, allowing you to see shapes and colors and identify objects during everyday activities. However, the function and integrity of your eyes can change over time, leading to the need for prescription eyewear or LASIK surgery. While only your ophthalmologist can determine if vision correction is necessary for you, you can find out more about your visual acuity by learning how your eyes work. Check out this guide to eye anatomy to learn more.

    Antique medical illustration | Human Eye

    Parts of the Eye

    Your eye is approximately one inch in diameter and features several different components. The iris is the pigmented or colored part of your eye around your pupil, which is the black circular opening that allows light into your eye. Your cornea is the clear lens that covers your iris and pupil and is responsible for reflecting light onto your retina. The white portion of your eye is known as the sclera, while the clear layer of tissue that covers the front of your eye is the conjunctiva.

    Functions of the Eye

    When light enters your pupil, it is reflected off of your cornea and onto your retina, which is an area on the back of your eye that contains light-sensing cells. These cells convert light into electrical impulses, which are then sent to the brain via the optic nerve, where they are translated into visual representations.

    Common Conditions of the Eye

    There are a number of problems that may interfere with your ability to see clearly. These include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism, all of which involve having a cornea with an abnormal shape. Other eye conditions that may impact your vision include presbyopia, cataracts, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and macular degeneration.

    If you are searching for an experienced ophthalmologist or LASIK eye surgeon in New York City, look no further than Dr. Mark Hornfeld with Vista Laser Vision. Give our office a call at (212) 580-8881 or visit our website for information on Wavefront LASIK, glaucoma treatment, and multifocal lenses.

  • Foods to Eat to Keep Your Eyes Healthy for Life

    There are a number of factors which can impact the health and integrity of your eyes, including genetic makeup, increasing age, overall health status, and traumatic injury. You may be surprised to discover that the foods you eat can also have an impact on your eye health . Read through this blog to find out more about the foods that support eye health and vision.

    Fresh organic vegetables


    Carrots are great sources of beta carotene—an antioxidant which can help reduce the risk of cataract development and macular degeneration. Consider cutting up raw carrots for a healthy snack and dipping them in salsa, hummus, or just eating them plain. You can also add carrots to your salads and soups.


    Eating broccoli is beneficial for your eye health because it contains a number of antioxidants, vitamins, and nutrients which can help ward off cataracts. In fact, a single serving of broccoli contains vitamins C, K, A, B6, B2, B5, B1, B3, and E, as well as folate, fiber, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, calcium, and zinc.


    Another green vegetable you may want to start adding to your diet is spinach, which contains four eye-protecting nutrients: beta carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and vitamin C. These nutrients act as a barrier against diseases like macular degeneration by absorbing between 40 and 90 percent of blue light intensity.


    According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology , adding cold-water fish like sardines, tuna, halibut, and wild salmon to your diet may help reduce the risk of eye diseases. This is because these fish contain high levels of omega-3 fatty acids.

    Citrus Fruits

    Oranges, grapefruits, lemons, and tangerines are high in vitamin C. As a result, they can help reduce the risk of cataract development and age-related macular degeneration.

    While eating a balanced diet is important for your eye health, it is also essential to undergo routine eye exams. Let Dr. Mark Hornfeld of NYC’s Vista Laser Vision protect your visual acuity and overall eye health. Learn more by contacting us online or by calling (212) 580-8881 today!